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    網絡文學在創新中發展
    編審:佚名  ‖  發布時間:2013-08-24 15:34:04  ‖  查看2463次
      
      來源:中國作家網(武翩翩)
      
      當下的網絡文學已經深入大眾生活的肌理之中。無論在地鐵、公交車上,還是在咖啡館和餐廳里,總能見到不少人拿著電子書閱讀器、手機或iPad,全神貫注地在屏幕上“翻閱”。在我國,網絡文學已經走過了10多年的風雨歷程,而在學界看來,它仍然像新生事物那樣充滿問號、爭議不斷,需要更為深入細致的研究。近日,中國文藝理論學會、中南大學文學院、《文藝理論研究》編輯部在西藏拉薩舉辦了“網絡與文學變局”學術研討會,關于網絡文學研究方法、發展問題以及價值判斷的探討,又一次擺上了桌面。
      
      更多的包容,更切實的把握
      
      在誕生伊始,網絡文學在學界可謂備受冷落,許多人將其看作“曇花一現”的短暫文化現象,認為其“幾乎不能算是真正意義上的文學”。而經過10多年的成長,網絡文學悄悄地走進了大眾尤其是青年人的日常生活之中,成為當代文化的一個重要景觀。中南大學文學院院長歐陽友權提供了這樣一組數據:截至2012年12月底,在我國5.64億網民中,有網絡文學用戶2.33億,其中網站注冊寫手約200萬人。文學網站及移動終端每天的文學閱讀超過10億人次。歐陽友權表示,網絡文學所創造的巨大文化關注,“重構了足以表征一個時代的文學新語境”。
      
      面對網絡文學“烈火烹油”的發展態勢,學界仍然存有一些“恨鐵不成鋼”的聲音。有人說,當下中國的網絡文學還停留在“印刷文學的網絡版”階段,與集視頻和音樂等于一身的歐美電子文學、具有高度公眾參與性的日本電子文學都有差距。也有學者認為網絡文學應是“充分利用網絡特性進行原創的文學”,而中國現在的網絡文學不能稱之為真正意義上的網絡文學。
      
      與這些“嚴苛派”相對的,是一批主張寬容對待網絡文學的評論家。他們認為,不管在理論上能否被概括和把握,網絡文學“在日常生活中已經實實在在地被當做文學作品來閱讀”,成為了文學版圖中不可或缺的圖景。
      
      “如此今天擺在我們面前的問題,已不再是確定網絡文學究竟是不是文學的問題,而是要認真研究網絡文學的存在與傳播方式、它的生產與閱讀模式、它對傳統文學觀念所產生的影響以及它在當下文化語境中的作用等問題。”黑龍江大學教授馬漢廣認為,網絡文學的重要性已經無需討論,它已經在文學實踐活動中被大眾所認可。研究網絡文學,需要更切實的把握和更多的包容。
      
      而他同時承認,在現實中,的確是任何一種現有的觀念都無法完全把握網絡文學這種形式,所以對網絡文學的研究,不應僅僅針對一種獨特的文學形式,而更應通過這種研究,在當代文學觀念的建構問題上取得突破性進展。
      
      對準出發點,關注團隊研究
      
      隨著網絡文學的風生水起,一大批專家學者及團隊投身于網絡文學研究領域。而面對紛繁復雜、浩如煙海的網絡文學作品,不少研究者心生“以有涯隨無涯”的感慨。由此,“對準出發點”,找準切入的角度,就顯得尤為重要。如中南大學教授歐陽文風就少數民族網絡文學等方面進行研究,江西省社科院研究員龍迪勇以敘事學方法闡述網絡文學中的分形敘事作品,廣西民族大學教授李啟軍從網絡電影領域尋找網絡文學的發展空間,都是很有意思的視角。
      
      就網絡文學研究的基礎工作而言,面對閱讀量和知識結構的挑戰,團隊分工合作是一張有力的王牌。比如中南大學文學院的網絡文學研究團隊,10余年來致力于建設網絡文學數據庫、編寫《網絡文學詞典》、編纂網絡文學編年史、進行漢語網絡文學近5年的普查、編撰“網絡文學100”叢書等一系列梳理整合工作,發表研究論文數百篇,取得了豐碩成果。
      
      北京大學副教授邵燕君也十分關注團隊研究的重要性。她招募熱愛網絡文學的學生組成研究團隊,針對網絡文學類型、網絡文學網站、網絡文學生產機制、網絡文學重要作家作品等領域,做了不少有價值的研究工作。
      
      為網絡文學提供“舒展”的生態環境
      
      加強網絡文學理論批評建設,一直是業內經久不息的呼聲。中南大學教授禹建湘指出,網絡文學自發的“批評”,其隨意性、娛樂性、炒作性在某種程度上削弱了批評的力度和深度。與此同時,傳統文學批評受制于固有的批評思路和批評視野,容易對網絡文學進行“單向度”的批判,對網絡文學新的創作范式往往無所適從。這導致網絡文學的研究處于前后失據的狀態。
      
      而學者們也不無欣慰地觀察到,近年來,批評界開始摒棄先前的“傲慢與偏見”,嘗試深層面介入網絡文學領域,頻頻開展與網絡文學相關的活動,探討網絡文學的價值與貢獻。一些媒體也開辟專欄研討網絡文學的發展與現狀,但是現今和他們所期望的“開放而多元化”的批評生態,還有不小的距離。
      
      網絡文學不是一個單純的文學概念,它與時代、生活、大眾之間呈現出比以往任何一種文學樣態都更為寬廣和直接的關聯。浙江理工大學教授金雅由此提出,與之相應的網絡文學理論研究也需要更及時的更新和更豐富的維度,使網絡文學更好地伸展自己的人生觸角,承擔自己的文化使命,這也是文學理論面對新的文學生態建設和發展的自身需要。
      
      魯東大學教授何志鈞同樣強調,網絡文學理論批評應當為網絡文學維持一個相對舒展的生態環境。他指出,若是一味強調“規范”網絡文學,恰恰是忽視了網絡文學與傳統文學在文化精神上的差異,戕殺網絡文學的“野性”。新世紀的網絡文學生態建設,需要國人解放思想,更換思路,祛除傳統偏見,正視網絡文學的經驗事實,立足當下文化語境,客觀地審視網絡文學的現狀和走勢,充分理解網絡文學獨特的藝術思維、復雜的社會根因,從而促進網絡文學生態建設。
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